Is BF3 Polar Or Nonpolar

bf3 polar or nonpolar

Boron trifluoride (BF3) is an inorganic chemical compound with colorless gas and a pungent smell. The gas of BF3 is very toxic, which can damage the organism, such as animal, plant, and bacterium.

Many students are also confused that boron trifluoride (BF3) is an acid or base? Boron trifluoride (BF3) is the lewis acid because there is no hydrogen involved in this reaction.

Are you confused that is BF3 polar or nonpolar? Don’t worry. I will explain everything in detail about the polarity of Boron trifluoride (BF3).

Formula:

The formula Boron trifluoride is BF3.

Discovery:

The Boron trifluoride (BF3) is discovered by  Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard in 1808.

Is BF3 Polar Or Nonpolar

Explanation 1:

Boron trifluoride or BF3 is nonpolar because, in BF3, all the fluorine atoms are in the triangle’s plane around the molecule. Therefore, they are canceling out each other for pulling electrons.

Explanation 2:

Boron trifluoride or BF3 is nonpolar because the shape of the BF3 is highly symmetric. The geometry of the BF3 is trigonal planar, which helps to cancel out the dipole moments of the three BF bonds, and at last, the result of the dipole moments becomes zero.

Explanation 3:

Boron trifluoride or BF3 is a nonpolar molecule because, in BF3, fluorine is more electronegative than boron. The moment of the three bonds in the BF3 is equal, and in BF3, each bond is polar, but boron trifluoride has a trigonal planar shape, which means that the moment of the three bonds will exactly cancel out each other moments and the net dipole moment will become zero.

Explanation 4:

Boron trifluoride or BF3 is a nonpolar molecule because, as you can see in the image, three fluorine is attached with boron, which results from the dipole moment of two fluorine atoms and cancels with the third one. So the dipole moments are equal to zero.

total dipole moments
Dipole moment = 0

With that, it’s also essential to know about the BrF5, NO2+ and NF3 polarity.

Summary

The main reason why BF3 is nonpolar because there is no net dipole. Check out the above explanation. I have explained it in different ways for easy understanding.

BF3 Compound Name

Boron trifluoride (Compound) If I talk about boron so, there is a maximum possibility of three bonds in the case of boron. It’s because boron can only share 3 electrons.

Summary

Click on the above link to know everything about the BF3 compound name.

BF3 Molecular Geometry

The molecular geometry of the BF3 is called trigonal planar. The trigonal planar is a central atom that has three bonded atoms around and has no lone pairs of electrons. That is why the bond and lone pairs’ total number becomes three, and the bond form angles of 120°.

molecular geometry bf3
Boron trifluoride

Summary

The molecular geometry of the BF3 is called trigonal planar according to the reference of chemistry.

BF3 Lewis Structure

If you want to know about the lewis structure of BF3, you need to calculate the valence electrons for the BF3 molecule. Before calculating the valence electrons, make sure you know that there are a total of 24 valence electrons for the lewis structure of BF3. Once you determine the number of valence electrons in the BF3, place them properly to read the below points.

  • Place the boron in the center because boron is the least electronegative in the BF3 Lewis structure. That is why it goes to the structure center.
  • In the outermost shell, the boron needs six valence electrons.

Violation:

While drawing the lewis structure of Bf3, you need to keep one thing in mind that the octet rule will be violated in these situations as given below. 

  1. If there are many valence electrons
  2. Maybe If the valence electrons are very few
  3. If the number of valence electrons is odd such as 1,3,5,7,9 etc

Just keep the above situations in your mind because the above exceptions can occur sometimes. So you will know these points, and it will help you a lot. 

Here is how to draw the lewis structure of BF3.

Hybridization Of BF3

There are several kinds of hybridization such as sp2, sp3, sp but hybridization of BF3 is sp2 because between the boron, one pi bond is required for the double bond, and only three σ-bonds are formed per boron atom. The atomic S orbitals and P orbitals in the outer boron layer are mixed to form three equivalent hybrid SP2 orbitals.

Summary

Simple is that the hybridization of BF3 is sp2.

BF3 Bond Angle

The bond angle of BF3 is 120° because boron trifluoride (BF3) has perfect threefold planar symmetry. The triple-axis is equivalent to a 120° counterclockwise rotation of the line.

Summary

The symmetry of a molecule means that the molecule itself is not polar.

Dipole Moment Of BF3

The boron trifluoride (BF3) has no dipole moment due to its triangular shape. The boron lies at the center with the corner atom F, which cancel each other, and BF3 have zero dipole moment.

Summary

The simple is that BF3 has no dipole moment.

BfF3 Intermolecular Forces

The intermolecular forces in BF3 is given below.

  • Dipole-induced Dipole.
  • Ion-Dipole.
  • Hydrogen Bonding.
  • Dipole-Dipole.
  • London Dispersion.

Summary

Read more here about intermolecular forces in BF3.

Properties of BF3

  • Boron trifluoride (BF3) is soluble in water.
  • The boiling point of boron trifluoride (BF3) is −100.3 °C (−148.5 °F; 172.8 K).
  • The melting point of boron trifluoride (BF3) is −126.8 °C (−196.2 °F; 146.3 K).
  • It can corrode metal and steel.
  • The dipole moment of BF3 is zero.
  • BF3 is very dangerous because they produce toxic fumes of Hydrogen Fluoride (HF).

Summary

The above are a few properties of BF3.

Uses of BF3

The uses of boron trifluoride (BF3) is given below.

  • It is used in organic synthesis.
  • BF3 is used to prepare Diborane, which is a chemical compound and consists of boron and hydrogen.
  • It is used as a flux, which can be used for metallurgy and metal joining.
  • Boron trifluoride (BF3) is used in sensitive neutron detection, which has two aspects hardware and software.
  • It’s also useful for manufacturing these oils, e.g., crude oil, fuel oils, etc.
  • The industry which makes paper also used BF3.

Summary

There are many uses of BF3, but the above are the most used of BF3.

Related Questions

Why does bf3 not have a double bond?

The boron molecule does not follow the octet rule, and the boron has a single bond between fluorine and boron atoms. That’s why the orbitals p is empty, and it doesn’t contain double bonds.

How is bf3 stable?

The BF3 is stable with six valence electrons. Fluorine has one bonding electron and forms double bonds. This is why the second is considered correct, and boron can form only three bonds.

Does bf3 show back bonding?

The hybridization in bF3 is sp2, which means it contains two 2p orbitals, so let it be 2pz. The fluorine’s hybridization is sp3, which contains sp3 orbitals, lone pairs, and the fourth one is filled half. The sigma bond is formed by overlapping the half orbitals of sp3 and sp2. So the fluorine atom will make three-sigma bonds. Each fluorine will make one lone pair. It overlaps with the undefined boron orbital 2pz, and the boron is making pπ -sp3(π) back bond.

Final Thoughts

That was all about is BF3 polar or nonpolar. I hope you may now understand that BF3 is a nonpolar molecule.

Why is the BF3 nonpolar? I have mentioned many reasons that help you a lot to clarify your confusion about it.

The compound name of BF3 is boron trifluoride, and the molecular geometry of BF3 is called trigonal planar.

While drawing the lewis structure, it would be better if you keep in mind the violation rules.

Do you think we have missed something about the BF3 topic? Let us know in the comments section I will add them.

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