Acetylene (C2H2) is a chemical compound, which gas is hazardous, and high-pressure decomposition can result in fire or explosion. It is a simple alkyne and hydrocarbons.
Its gas is not too toxic, but it contains toxic impurities, e.g., phosphine and arsine, which smell like garlic when generated from calcium carbide.
If you breathe acetylene, it may irritate the throat and nose. The acetylene is a saturated compound that resists the addition reaction, e.g., hydrogenation.
The acetylene two carbon atoms are bonded with is bonded together in a triple bond. The carbon-carbon triple bond places all four atoms in a straight line with a bond angle of 180°CCH.
The reaction of acetylene is discovered by y Friedrich Wohler in 1862 and is prepared by calcium carbide hydrolysis, which reaction is given below.
CaC2 + 2H2O → Ca(OH)2 + C2H2
The formula of acetylene is C2H2.
Is C2H2 Polar Or Nonpolar
The acetylene (C2H2) is a nonpolar molecule because C2H2 has a nonpolar covalent bond, arranged in a linear structure around the two central carbon atoms. The reason why bonds are considered to be nonpolar covalent bond it’s due to the low electronegativity difference.
The acetylene (C2H2) is a nonpolar molecule because its linear structure is symmetric and has an asymmetric linear molecule. The two carbon atom is in the center and sharing one hydrogen on each carbon and triple bond. The electronegativity of carbons and hydrogen cancel out; therefore, the C2H2 is considered a nonpolar molecule.
The C2H2 is nonpolar because it is linear and symmetrical; therefore, they don’t have a dipole moment, making the molecule nonpolar.
The C2H2 is nonpolar because of the electronegativity difference between hydrogen and carbon. The electronegativity of carbon is 2.5, and hydrogen is 2.2, which has less than 0.4 difference. The bond between C-H is nonpolar, which makes the whole molecule nonpolar.
With that C2H4 is also a nonpolar molecule.
Simple is that C2H2 is a nonpolar molecule. If you want to know why it’s nonpolar, then read the above four explanations.
C2H2 Molecular Geometry
The molecular geometry of C2H2 is linear, with a bond angle of 180 degrees.
As you can see in the above picture, we have two things attached: hydrogen and the other is carbon. There are no lone pair of electrons on both of them.
Remember that H has two valence electrons between H and C. The C2h2 is more acidic than NH3.
So we only have two things on that carbon, and they’re going to spread out as far away as they can, in this case, on opposite sides and give us a linear molecular geometry.
We have hydrogen on the end and carbon on the center, and the straight line represents the linear molecular geometry.
The C2H2 molecular geometry is linear.
C2H2 Lewis Structure
To draw the C2H2 Lewis structure, follow the below instructions.
- First of all, find out the total number of valence electrons in the C2H2 using the periodic table.
- In C2H2, carbon (C) is in group 14 or 4A in the periodic table and has four valence electrons. Hydrogen is in group 1 or 1A and has one valence electron, but we have two carbons. Therefore, we will multiply it by two 4(2)=8 and have two hydrogens, so multiple it with two 1(2)= 2
- To find the total number of valence electrons in the C2H2, we will add carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) valence electrons, which become 8+2= 10.
- Now we know that we have a total of 10 valence electrons in the C2H2.
- Put the least electronegative atom on the center, but as you can see, we have hydrogen in C2H2, so it always goes on the outside.
- Write two hydrogens in the same line and put one hydrogen on its left and one on the right side.
- To make a chemical bond, you need to assign two electrons between each bond.
- Used all valence electrons to complete the octet.
- Put the remaining valence electrons in the carbon central atom, but if you see the octet, it will be full and stable; therefore, make a triple bond between the C-C atom.
If you are weak to learn theoretically, watch this video to draw the C2H2 Lewis structure and techniques to use all valence electrons.
Hybridization of C2H2
The hybridization of C2H2 is sp, and the only sp can form a triple bond.
There are two CH in ethylene. The hybridization of each carbon will be sp, And the two hydrogen atoms have unhybridized 1s atomic orbitals.
The two carbon atoms here are connected by a triple bond, which forms 1 pi and 2 sigma bonds. This means that two C atoms have two sets of unhybridized atomic orbitals. These orbitals overlap laterally/parallel, resulting in two pi bonds between the hybrid sp C atoms that have been sigma connected.
Simple is that C2H2 has sp hybridization.
Is C2H2 Ionic Or Covalent
C2H2 is a covalent bond. It is the compound of carbon and hydrogen, which have two carbon triple bonds. The carbon and hydrogen both are nonmetals. You can also determine bond covalency from electronegativity difference. The electronegativity difference between carbon and hydrogen is very small; therefore, C2H2 is a covalent bond.
Simple is that C2H2 is covalent bond.
C2H2 Dipole Moment
The dipole moment of C2H2 is zero, and its electronegativity difference is 0.4.
Simple is that C2H2 has zero dipole moment.
How Is C2H2 Formed
The acetylene (C2H2) is made of two carbon and two hydrogen atoms. The process of the chemical reaction produces C2H2. It is also produced from different raw materials and thermal cracking.
For the production of acetylene (C2H2), calcium carbide is the most popular material. It is made by mixing lime and coke in the oven.
When the calcium carbide reacts with water, it creates acetylene gas, and the chemical reaction is given below.
CaC2 + 2H2O → C2H2 + Ca (OH)2.
The other method is the thermal cracking process. You can make use of natural gas, including crude oil and naphtha. This process required a high temperature to make for producing C2H2 and more.
Above are the two different ways for producing C2H2 gas.
Properties Of Acetylene (C2H2)
- The molar mass of C2H2 is 26.038 g·mol−1.
- Its boiling point is -84°C, and its melting point is -80.7°C.
- The C2H2 gas is colorless in appearance and has a strong odor.
- It is slightly soluble in water.
- Its conjugate acid is Ethynium.
- Gaseous acetylene is dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF) or acetone and delivered to a special brown bottle. These cylinders have a left-hand connection.
- It is manufacture through a reaction of calcium carbide and water.
- Acetylene’s gravity is 0.9, which makes it lighter than air because the specific gravity of air is one, and it’s less than specific gravity.
Above are the properties of acetylene (C2H2).
Uses Of Acetylene (C2H2)
The commercial uses of acetylene are given below.
Acetylene is used for welding and cutting because it produces a high temperature of 3100 degrees Celsius and oxygen, which is very suitable for gas welding steel.
The acetylene cleans the metal surface easily because it produces a reducing zone for cleaning the metal.
With welding, acetylene is also used for cutting. Acetylene is used to make auto parts and other metal parts that are critical to accuracy.
It is also used in the lamps for remote applications or portable. Usually, these lamps are installed on bicycles, homes, and cars. Sometimes acetylene is used to provides lights for cities and small towns.
Acetylene is also used in the mining industry.
Production of Polyethylene Plastics:
Nowadays, you may have used the most common Polyethylene plastics, which are made from acetylene. You can also mix acetylene with other chemicals, e.g., hydrochloric acid or chlorine, to make different types of plastic like polyvinyl chloride.
Production of Chemicals:
Acetylene (C2H2) is used to produce different inorganic chemical compounds. It is used to synthesize certain vitamins, such as vitamin E and A.
Above are the application and uses of acetylene (C2H2).
That was all about is C2H2 polar or nonpolar. I hope it’s now clear to you that Acetylene (C2H2) is a nonpolar molecule because it has a nonpolar covalent bond, and its liner structure is symmetric.
The molecular geometry of C2H2 is linear and has a bond angle of 180 degrees.
To draw the C2H2 Lewis structure, watch the above video, or read the instructions.
The C2H2 has an sp hybridization and has a covalent bond, not ionic. Its dipole moment is zero.
The acetylene (C2H2) is formed from two methods, the first one is the chemical reaction process, and the second one is the thermal cracking process.
Do you think we have missed something about the C2H2 topic? Let us know in the comments section below we will add them.