Sulfur dichloride (SCl2) is a chemical compound that exists as a liquid with a cherry-red texture. It’s also a mixture of monochloride with tetrachloride.
The smell of the SCl2 is pungent, and it is produced by the chlorination of disulfur dichloride.
In SCl2, there are two atoms in the chlorine and have one sulfur atom. The chlorine atoms need one electron to complete the octet.
Are you wondering is SCl2 polar or nonpolar? In this article, you will know everything about SCl2 polarity, its structure, geometrical shape, and bond angle.
The formula of sulfur dichloride is SCl2.
Chemical Reaction Of Chlorination Of Sulfur:
- S8 + 4 Cl2 → 4 S2Cl2; ΔH = −58.2 kJ/mol
- S2Cl2 + Cl2 ↔ 2 SCl2; ΔH = −40.6 kJ/mol
Here you will know in detail about the chlorination of sulfur.
Is SCl2 Polar Or Nonpolar
The sulfur dichloride (SCl2) is a polar molecule because SCl2 has lone pairs of electrons in the central atom of sulfur which, results in a bent structure and, the molecules include a permanent dipole. Therefore SCL2 is a polar molecule.
The sulfur dichloride (SCl2) is a polar molecule because the molecule is bent. Therefore the two dipole bonds don’t cancel each other. In SCl2, the charge of the sulfur is slightly positive, and the charge of the chlorine is slightly negative.
The sulfur dichloride (SCl2) is a polar molecule because there is a mild difference in the electronegativity of sulfur and chlorine. The electronegativity of chlorine is 3.16, and the electronegativity of sulfur is 2.58. Also, the molecule is bent with a bond angle of 103 degrees and has two chlorine atoms.
The sulfur dichloride (SCl2) is a polar molecule because of its geometrical bent shape. The other reason why it’s polar it’s because the sulfur is not hybridized and the covalent bonds are made by the sigma overlap of p orbitals. The Cl-S-Cl is bent and the bond angle is close to the right angle which, resulting in a polar molecule.
Simple is that SCl2 is a polar molecule due to its bent structure and electronegativity difference.
SCl2 Molecular Geometry
The molecular geometry of SCl2 is bent which, is similar to water, but there is a difference between its bond angle and bond length.
The bond angle of SCl2 is approximately 103∘, and its bond length is 201 pm.
On the other hand, the bond angle of water is
104.45∘ and bond length is 95.84 pm.
As you can see in the above SCl2 structure that two lone pairs push down the two chlorine atoms, and they are separated by an angle of 104o.
Simple is that SCl2 has bent molecular geometry.
SCl2 Lewis Structure
In the Lewis structure of SCl2, the use of a double bond is necessary.
To draw the SCl2 Lewis structure, follow the below instructions.
- First of all, find out the total number of valence electrons in the C2H4 using the periodic table.
- In SCl2, the sulfur is in group 6 or 16 in the periodic table and has six valence electrons. The chlorine is in group 7 or 17 and has seven valence electrons, but we have two chlorine, so we will multiply 7 with 2, which becomes 14. Add 6 and 14, which becomes 6+14=21.
- We have a total of 20 valence electrons.
- Now put the sulfur into the center because it’s the least electronegative. Pu the chlorine on the left and right side, and put two electrons between the sulfur and chlorine to make a chemical bond.
- Add the valence electrons around chlorine and sulfur. Make sure to use all valence electrons.
- Check the octet. Ensure that the chlorine and sulfur have eight valence electrons.
Used all valence electrons and checkout each atom octet.
If you a weak in theory, then watch this video to draw the SCl2 Lewis structure practically.
Hybridization Of SCl2
In SCl2, the sulfur atom contains two bonding and lone pairs, which doesn’t require pi bonding. Therefore the hybridization of SCl2 is sp3.
Here is the definition of bond pairs and lone pairs.
When the covalent bond is formed between two atoms so each atom will share one electron and the electrons that are present in the covalent bond are called electron bond pairs.
In methane, there are four bond pairs of electrons.
It refers to the electrons that are not shared with another atom of a covalent bond is called lone pairs of electrons.
Simple is that SCl2 has sp3 hybridization.
Is SCl2 Ionic Or Covalent
Sulfur dichloride (SCl2) is a covalent bond because the difference between the electronegativity between sulfur and chlorine is less than 1.9. If the electronegativity difference between two atoms is quite high(more than 1.9), it’s considered ionic.
The electronegativity of sulfur is 2.58, and the electronegativity of chlorine is 3.16, so if you calculate the difference between these two, it’s less than 1.9. Therefore SCl2 is a covalent bond.
Simple is that SCl2 has a covalent.
Dipole Moment Of SCl2
SCl2 has a dipole moment, which comes out in the 0.53D. The direction of the SCl2 net dipole point is opposite to the negative end of the resultant.
Due to the asymmetric molecules, the dipole moment of S-Cl does not cancel each other.
The dipole moment of SCl2 is 0.54D.
Electronic Shape Of SCl2
The electronic shape of SCl2 is tetrahedral, and four electrons surround sulfur. Two of them are lone pairs, and the remaining two are bond pairs.
The electronic geometry of SCl2 is tetrahedral.
Properties Of Sulfur dichloride (SCl2)
- The molar mass of the SCl2 is 102.97 g·mol−1.
- Its odor is pungent and appears as a red liquid.
- The density of SCl2 is 1.621 g·cm−3, liquid.
- The boiling point of SCl2 is 59 °C (138 °F; 332 K) (decomposes), and the melting point is −121.0 °C (−185.8 °F; 152.2 K).
- Its solubility in water is hydrolysis.
Above are the few properties of SCl2.
Uses Of Sulfur dichloride (SCl2)
- It is used in the manufacture of organic chemicals as a chlorinating agent.
- It’s used for hardening the softwood.
- The SCl2 is used for the treatment with fluoride salt that gives SF4 via decomposition of intermediate compounds of sulfur difluoride.
- Its also used for manufacturing sulfur dyes and insecticides.
Above are the few the uses of SCl2.
What happens when you mix chlorine and sulfur?
SCl2 has sulfur and chlorine. If chlorine is passed through heated sulfur, disulphur dichloride, S2Cl2 will form with these two compounds’ reaction. The liquid that is formed while reaction will be orange and evil-smelling. Obviously, it isn’t very meaningful to talk about chlorine’s reaction, and argon does not react with chlorine.
What state is sulfur at room temperature?
Sulfur is a nonmetallic chemical element represented by S and belongs to the oxygen group 16 in the periodic table. The state of the sulfur is solid at room temperature.
What is the bond between sulfur and chlorine?
The sulfur and chlorine are both nonmetals, so when two nonmetals react, it makes a covalent bond. These two are representative elements that follow octet rules.
That was all about is SCl2 polar or nonpolar. I hope it’s now clear to you that sulfur dichloride (SCl2) is a polar molecule.
The reason why SCL2 is polar it’s because of the bent molecule and mild difference of electronegativity between sulfur and chlorine.
The sulfur dichloride (SCl2) has bent molecular geometry. While drawing its Lewis structure, follow the above instructions, or watch the video.
Its hybridization is sp3 because SCl2 doesn’t require pi bonding.
The SCl2 is a covalent bond whose dipole moment direction is 0.53D.
Do you think we have missed something about the SCl2 topic? Let us know in the comments section below we will update the article.